iRASD Journal of Management <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><span data-contrast="auto">i</span></em><span data-contrast="auto">RASD</span><span data-contrast="auto"> Journal of </span><span data-contrast="auto">Management (JOM</span><span data-contrast="auto">) is a</span><span data-contrast="auto">n international</span><span data-contrast="auto"> bi-annual double-blind peer</span><span data-contrast="auto">-</span><span data-contrast="auto">reviewed research</span><span data-contrast="auto"> </span><span data-contrast="auto">journal</span><span data-contrast="auto"> which is</span><span data-contrast="auto"> published by the International Research Association for Sustainable Development (</span><span data-contrast="auto">iRASD</span><span data-contrast="auto">). <em>i</em>RASD Journal of Management (JOM) addresses the issues of management sciences and is committed to providing open access to all its published content. <br /></span><span data-contrast="auto"><strong>Online ISSN:</strong> 2709-8451<br /></span><span data-contrast="auto"><strong>Print ISSN:</strong> 2709-8443</span></p> International Research Association for Sustainable Development (iRASD) en-US iRASD Journal of Management 2709-8443 Impact of Perceived Organizational Support on Organizational Commitment among University Employees: Moderating Role of Job Experience <p>The study was aimed to investigate the moderating role of job experience between perceived organizational support and organizational commitment among university employees. The target population was the employees of the Institute of Southern Punjab, Multan, Pakistan. The study was based on a correlational research design. 128 employees were sampled through a simple random sampling technique. Data was collected by survey method through Perceived Organizational Support Scale (POSS) by Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, and Sowa (1986) and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (Mowday, Steers, &amp; Porter, 1979). Demographic variable job experience was measured as moderating variables between perceived organizational support and organizational commitment. The collected data was analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 23). Correlation, regression, and moderation analysis were used to interpret data statistically. The results revealed a significant correlation between perceived organizational support and organizational commitment. The regression analysis indicated a significant impact of perceived organizational support on organizational commitment. The findings suggest a significant role of moderators (job experience) between organizational support and organizational commitment. Further study in organizational psychology would be recommended in the development of an encouraging and supportive workplace environment for employees.</p> Sadia Iqbal Saadia Zia Umbreen Khizar Copyright (c) 2021 Sadia Iqbal, Saadia Zia, Umbreen Khizar 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 3 3 200 207 10.52131/jom.2021.0303.0038 The Role of Human Rights and Obligations toward Cross Gender Empowerment under the domain of Islamic Laws <p>This study enumerates Islamic laws regarding women rights throughout the extent of Quran and Hadith in the principal origins of Islam. It highlights toward gender equity and women rights. Islamic principles consistently accord with nature of man and woman and think about their intrinsic contrasts. Islam has ensured people (both men and women) human rights and obligations associated with them as people in an equivalent degree. What Islam ensures usually not get conveyed into solid actions because of dominant communal and ethnic standards and in context of social and cultural relations. The basic estimations of Islam ostensibly advance and respect the status of women in the public eye. Islam gave freedom to Muslim women by allowing them equivalent rights as similar to their male partners, as demonstrated by the Prophet Mohammad ??? ???? ???? ???? (PHUH) [women are identical parts or<br />sisters in relation to men]. Numerous adamant translations of Islamic messages and practices of a larger number of Muslim societies unfortunately disagree the primary origin of women rights as well as gender equalities. Besides, it is falsly realized that Muslim females particularly are in retrograte position and are also mistreated by religion Islam as compare to non-Muslim women who are observed as liberated, modernized and forward. Thusly, this article focuses to distinguish how religion Islam has provided women their rights, liberty, equality and respect.</p> Salma Nawaz Malik Shahzad Shabbir Kanwal Shaheen Mouna Koser Copyright (c) 2021 Salma Nawaz, Malik Shahzad Shabbir, Kanwal Shaheen, Mouna Koser 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 3 3 208 217 10.52131/jom.2021.0303.0039 Employee Empowerment and Compensation as A Consequence on Employee Job Performance with the Moderating Role of Employee Accountability <p>Using data from 200 employees of FMCG companies in Multan, this study aims to analyze the effect of Employee Empowerment and Employee Compensation on Employee Job Performance while moderating the role of Employee Accountability. The partial least square method is used to estimate the results. The results of PLS-SEM reveal that Employee Empowerment, Employee Compensation, and Employee Accountability are all positively and significantly related to Employee Job Performance. Employee Accountability was found to partially moderate the relationship between Employee Empowerment and Employee Compensation using moderated regression. It is recommended that, in order to improve employee job performance, the organization develop and implement strategies for providing appropriate compensation. After processing and analyzing information from the labor market and internal regulations of the company, there seems a need to modify an appraisal system in line with the specified compensation structure and other benefits.</p> Muhammad Adnan Samia Zarrar Kamran Zaffar Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Adnan, Samia Zarrar, Kamran Zaffar 2021-12-29 2021-12-29 3 3 218 232 10.52131/jom.2021.0303.0040 Shopping Motivation and Green Consumption: A Study about Green Buying Behavior of Pakistani Consumers <p style="text-align: justify;">Natural resource depletion, increase in global population, climate change, and unsustainable consumption behaviors have all wreaked havoc on the ecosystem around the world. Increased consumption of green products is among the most effective strategies in adoption of sustainable consumption. The purpose of current research is to investigates the effect of shopping motivation (utilitarian) antecedents’ impact on utilitarian motivation and also discussed the mediating effect of utilitarian motivation on the association between utilitarian motivation antecedents and intention to purchase green products. Online survey was used to collect the data and SEM(structural equation modeling) was used to analyze data. The antecedents of shopping motivation (utilitarian) influence the intention of consumer about green buying. Four out of five hypothesis were supported. The findings of current research enable practitioners and managers to formulate strategies for sustainable consumption.</p> Imran Khan Furrukh Bashir Rashid Ahmad Muhammad Ayub Copyright (c) 2021 Imran Khan, Furrukh Bashir, Rashid Ahmad, Muhammad Ayub 2021-12-29 2021-12-29 3 3 233 242 10.52131/jom.2021.0303.0041 Technology-Performance Nexus during Covid-19: A Case of Commercial Banks from Selected South Asian Economies <p style="text-align: justify;">Technology acceptance affects performance of employees in emerging organizations. This study explores the relationship between technological transformation and performance of the employees of commercial banks from selected Asian economies during Covid-19 pandemic. We also analyze the effect of moderators; training, supervisor support and incentives on this relationship. We have tested the hypotheses by means of the survey of 400 employees of commercial banks from selected South Asian economies of Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and Pakistan. The Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression techniques are utilized to investigate the research problem. The identity theory and social learning theory reflects that the individuals get satisfied while relating themselves with the objectives of organization and the goals of nation. Further, they participate in the organizational and national development through technical innovation process if provided with supervisory support, training and incentives. This study recommends to executive management to adopt modern technology for sake of the higher objectives of firms’ performance in a Post- Covid depressed economies. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Syed Muhammad Abdul Rehman Shah Kashif Raza Asif Raza Ismat Nasim Copyright (c) 2021 Syed Muhammad Abdul Rehman Shah , Kashif Raza, Asif Raza, Ismat Nasim 2021-12-29 2021-12-29 3 3 258 267 10.52131/jom.2021.0303.0043 Impact of Perceived Organizational Support, Servant Leadership, Creative Self-Efficacy, and Conscientiousness on Job Boredom Via Job Crafting: A Study on Banking Sector of Pakistan <p>The feeling of job boredom can impede employees’ performances but it can be improved through engaging them in job crafting activities. It is important to understand the concept of job boredom because it can lead to many negative consequences at the work place. The study attempted to investigate the impact of perceived organizational support, servant leadership, creative self-efficacy, and conscientiousness on job boredom through the mediating effect of job crafting. Data has been collected from 450 employees of Punjab and Sindh working in banking sector of Pakistan through questionnaires. The data is analyzed with the help of SPSS 22 and Smart PLS 3. The findings reveal that there is significant and positive impact of perceived organizational support, servant leadership, creative self-efficacy, and conscientiousness on job crafting. Additionally, job crafting has significant and negative impact on job boredom. However, job crafting also significantly mediate between perceived organizational support, servant leadership, creative self-efficacy, conscientiousness, and job boredom. Moreover, the study also suggests that future researchers can explore other outcomes of job crafting through which job boredom can be mitigated.</p> Muhammad Yousuf Khan Marri Rabia Jamshaid Ramaisa Aqdas Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Yousuf Khan Marri, Rabia Jamshaid, Ramaisa Aqdas 2021-12-29 2021-12-29 3 3 243 257 10.52131/jom.2021.0303.0042 Managing Diversity Through Leadership and Emotional Intelligence in the Banking Sector of Pakistan: A Moderating Role of Organizational Culture <p>The moderation effect of organizational culture has also been examined. The quantitative approach has been used in data collection, and 182 sample responses have been gathered from the banking industry employees of Pakistan. The data has been analyzed by employing PLS-SEM. The results have shown that transformational and transactional leadership positively and insignificant affect workplace diversity. However, emotional intelligence has a positive and significant effect on workplace diversity. Besides, organizational culture has a positive and significant moderation effect between transactional leadership and workplace diversity. The organizational culture has a negative but insignificant moderation effect between transformational leadership and workplace diversity. The organizational culture has a negative but insignificant moderation effect between emotional intelligence and diversity. Managers are recommended to ensure transparency when identifying roles and expectations of the task amongst employees. Secondly, establish reward systems upon effective outcomes. Thirdly, state the punishments with utmost clarity.</p> Burhan Sami Ahmed Saeed Minhas Usman Ahmad Kashif Akram Copyright (c) 2021 Burhan Sami, Ahmed Saeed Minhas, Usman Ahmad, Kashif Akram 2021-12-29 2021-12-29 3 3 268 284 10.52131/jom.2021.0303.0044 Linking Inventory Efficiency, Productivity and Responsiveness to Firm Performance in Pakistan <p>Inventory is one of the most important current assets of any company, therefore, efficient usage and management of inventory are necessary for the long-term success of any business. This research links three main components of inventory management i.e. efficiency, productivity, and responsiveness to superior firm performance in terms of both operational and financial performance within the chemical sector of Pakistan. For this purpose, ten years of data from 2011-2020 was collected from the annual financial statements of 21 companies within the chemical sector to develop and examine a panel data model. The regression analysis provides strong evidence that both the inventory productivity and responsiveness measures positively and significantly result in firm outperformance. However, the correlation test suggests that there is a weak negative relationship between inventory efficiency and firm performance while inventory productivity has a strong positive correlation and inventory responsiveness has a weak positive correlation with firm performance. The research adds to the existing literature on inventory management by utilizing new inventory control measures in the context of a developing economy such as Pakistan.</p> Mirha Mubarak Naila Sadiq Syeda Fizza Abbas Copyright (c) 2021 Mirha Mubarak, Naila Sadiq, Syeda Fizza Abbas 2021-12-29 2021-12-29 3 3 285 301 10.52131/jom.2021.0303.0045 Do Bosses Get Bullied Too? A Qualitative Investigation of Causes, Impacts, and Treatments of Upward Workplace Bullying <p>Workplace bullying is an emerging problem in the organizational setting, that if not properly managed can deteriorate the normal functioning of an organization and consequently may harm the achievements of organizational goals. Aim of this research study is to explore the causes, impacts, and treatments of upward workplace bullying where subordinate behave in an inhumane way against supervisor. Data was collected by using semi-structured interviews with 10 persons employed at senior supervisory levels in the city of Faisalabad, Pakistan. A thematic analysis indicates that unclear managerial boundaries, absurd job descriptions, and weak interpersonal skills of the employees are the major causes of upward bullying. Individual impacts of bullying on the aggrieved parties and organizational treatments to mitigate and control the phenomenon are discussed.</p> Muhamad Farooq Rehan Quaisar Ijaz Khan Raheel Mumtaz Copyright (c) 2021 Muhamad Farooq Rehan, Quaisar Ijaz Khan, Raheel Mumtaz 2021-12-29 2021-12-29 3 3 302 309 10.52131/jom.2021.0303.0046 Knowledge Sharing and Competitive Advantage in Public Universities: Mediating Role of Strategic Intent <p>Public universities are the major source of higher education all over the world. Therefore, competitive public universities play a significant role in producing an effective labour force for society. The basic objective of the study is to examine the mediating role of strategic intent on the relationship between knowledge sharing and competitive advantage in the public higher education institutions (PHEIs) of Pakistan. Data were collected from the top management of the PHEIs of Pakistan by distributing the structured close-ended questionnaire. A total number of 192 questionnaires were received in a fully completed form that has been used for the final analysis. PLS-SEM was employed to examine measurement and structural model of the path model. The results reveal that KS is significantly and positively related to strategic intent and CA. Strategic intent also found to be significantly and positively related to CA. In addition, strategic intent mediates the relationship between KS and CA.</p> Kashif Akram Usman Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Kashif Akram, Usman Ahmad 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 3 3 310 317 10.52131/jom.2021.0303.0047 Impact of Online Recruitment on Organizational Attractiveness: An Experimental Study in the Context of Pakistan <p>The purpose of this study is to explore the aesthetical features of corporate recruitment websites, including the website design, style, and color, and to investigate their impact on organizational attractiveness and applicants' intention to apply. By doing so, the study also examines the effects of corporate websites on applicants' perception of the corporate culture and measures the mediating impact of perceptions of organizational culture on organizational attractiveness and applicants' intention to apply for the jobs in the context of Pakistan. The study is based on a laboratory experiment with three hundred undergraduate business students conducted at a university computer lab. Correlation, Independent T-test, One-way ANOVA, and Simple Linear Regression were applied to analyze variables using SPSS. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that website features have a significant positive impact on applicants' perceived organizational attractiveness. However, the website's design does not seem to impact applicants' intentions to apply for the job substantially. The regression analysis results also revealed that the perceived organizational culture partially mediates the relationship between website features and organizational attractiveness and fully mediates the relationship between website features and intentions to Apply.</p> Qamar Ali Muhammad Naveed Aslam Sahar Hafeez Copyright (c) 2021 Qamar Ali, Muhammad Naveed Aslam, Sahar Hafeez 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 3 3 318 328 10.52131/jom.2021.0303.0048 Environmental Governance and Green Energy: An Administrative Toolkit to Reduce Environmental Degradation <p>For the last two decades, environmental degradation has become the most serious concern at multiple levels and has gained special attention of literature and policymakers. Strict implementation of the evidence-based policy solutions could serve as a regulatory tool to gradually overcome this issue. The current study examines the role of environmental governance (environmental-related taxes) and green energy (renewable energy consumption and production) on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission of the ten most CO2 emitting countries. The study has used economic growth as the control variable. Data has been extracted from the world development indicators (WDI) from 2012 to 2020. The study employed the robust standard error and fixed effect model (FEM) to examine the linkage among the variables under consideration. The results indicated that environmental governance and green energy have a significant role in reducing environmental degradation in the ten most CO2 emitting countries in the world. The findings of this empirical and evidence-based study suggest to the relevant environmental management authorities, administrative bodies, and policymakers to incorporate environmental governance and green energy in their environmental management strategies.</p> Muhammad Sajjad Hussain Muhammad Atif Nawaz Tusawar Iftikhar Ahmad Muhammad Azhar Bhatti Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Sajjad Hussain, Muhammad Atif Nawaz, Tusawar Iftikhar Ahmad, Muhammad Azhar Bhatti 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 3 3 329 338 10.52131/jom.2021.0303.0049 Trends of Power Devolution in South Asia: A Comparative Appraisal of Pakistan’s Local Government System under the Civil-Military Regimes <p>In the South Asian countries, the trends of power sharing, decentralization and power evolution have not only always remained a pertinent debate for the consolidation of democracy and good governance, but also static political systems due to their multiethnic realities, multilingual differences, multicultural diversification, and their authoritarian orientation in the respective countries. Historically, the transfer of power through the local system of government (LGS) was seen as an important tool to accelerate the transition to representative democracy on the subcontinent. However, it was largely aimed at creating a new political class that would support colonial rule and meet the political demands of the local population for power sharing within the boundaries of the colonial government structure. Due to their embedded interests, the colonial legacies in South Asian states offered non-representative state institutions such as the military enough space to influence the transformation process of democracy. The paper has two main objectives: (1) to explore the concepts of power devolution and their associative nomenclature; (2) to analysis of the political and administrative dimensions of decentralization to underpin the structure of decentralization in South Asia in general and Pakistan in particular. The results of the study are that the lack of the weakest local government system in the South Asian region in general, and in Pakistan in particular, is due to the colonial legacy of an ongoing controlled political mindset in the form of bureaucracy, frequent military coups, a lack of political will to develop a welfare state in Pakistan. It uses the qualitative research methods of phenomenology and correlation, which sheds light on the meaning of relative terms often used to explain delegation of authority for political and administrative purposes.</p> Asifa Jahangir Rubeel Zain Soulat Dilkusha Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Asifa Jahangir, Rubeel Zain, Soulat Dilkusha 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 3 3 339 359 10.52131/jom.2021.0303.0050 Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on profitability of banks in Pakistan: Application of GMM Approach <p>The present study investigates the effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on financial performance of commercial banks in Pakistan employing the generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator on a panel data. A diverse sample of 25 banks is selected for the analyses for a period of 11 years (2010-2020) based on consistently available data. In addition to the CSR index, some bank-specific and macroeconomic variables are used as control variables to test for the effects of CSR initiatives on profitability of banks in Pakistan. Our findings demonstrate that the CSR drives and commitments on social expectations reward the banks with larger profit margins. Consequently, the results tend to validate the stakeholder theory where socially responsible enterprises lead towards greater financial performance. The control variables like capital intensity, credit risk, bank size, liquidity, age of the bank, proportion of non-executive directors, tangibility and GDP growth divulge mixed results. The diversity in results propose a number of policy and managerial implications both for policy makers and banks managers.</p> Mehreen Nazish Muhammad Hanif Akhtar Copyright (c) 2021 Mehreen Nazish, Muhammad Hanif Akhtar 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 3 3 360 372 10.52131/jom.2021.0303.0051 Academic Administrative Emotion Management: A Systematic Literature Review <p>This study investigated sociological nature of emotions with its predictors and effects through literature review. Individuals need motivational force in every field; it determines the level of effort in work. In academic field emotions of anxiety, stress, envy, challenge may affect teachers in educational institutions. Thinking approach and aptitudes can be enriched by employing simple methods like experiencing the positive emotions and taking life as an enjoyment. If employees hide their true feelings about organization, the results may affect the organizational working adversely. The investigation of emotion management impact is necessary for effective engagement of teachers. Literature revealed various intrinsic or extrinsic influential factors for the emotion management and emotion regulation. There are different models like Integrated Model of Emotional Intelligence, process Model and Ego Depletion Model. But in context Pakistan’s education system the related study developed a response modulation model (URE) which will help us in stressful situations and minimizing the intensity of emotions.</p> Khalid Mahmood Khan Najam ul Kashif Copyright (c) 2021 Khalid Mahmood Khan, Najam ul Kashif 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 3 3 373 378 10.52131/jom.2021.0303.0052 Generational Cohorts and Their Collective Memories: An Empirical Study to Develop the Generational Profiling of the Pakistani Workforce <p>The current study aims to sociologically categorize the generations of the Pakistani workforce. For this purpose, similar to Schuman and Scott (1989)’s research methodology of identifying generations on the basis of their collective memories of formative events, the current study deploys a quantitative research design. Particularly, this is done by incorporating the socio-economic, political, and technologically significant events (SPTSE) into a questionnaire survey. These events have already been identified as generational pointers of the three Pakistani generations by Shaikh, Jamal, and Iqbal (2021). The Chi-Square results of the current research verify that the Pakistani Baby Boomers (Born during 1942-1961), Pakistani Generation X (Born during 1962-1981), and Pakistani Millennials / Generation Y (Born during 1982-2001) differ in recollecting certain SPTSE which they encountered during their coming-of-age years. Hence, having lived a particular set of formative eras, their generational characteristics, particularly with regard to their attitudes, values, and behaviors, are influenced, which are different and unique from that of the Western generations. This way, the generational pointers serve as a basis for the classification of the three Pakistani generations, and so prove the Asian context-specific application of the theory of generations.</p> Aliya Ahmad Shaikh Warda Najeeb Jamal Syed Muhammad Javed Iqbal Qurrat Ul Ain Najeeb Jamal Copyright (c) 2021 Aliya Ahmad Shaikh, Warda Najeeb Jamal, Syed Muhammad Javed Iqbal , Qurrat Ul Ain Najeeb Jamal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 3 3 379 399 10.52131/jom.2021.0303.0053 Information Technology Competencies: A Performance Booster for Organizations <p>The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of information technology competencies on financial performance, followed by organizational performance. The primary data collection technique was used to collect the data from 165 IT officers and top managers from Pakistan. Structural equation modelling was applied using Smart PLS 3 to examine the hypothesized model. The direct findings reveal that all three components of IT competencies are statistically significant in organizational performance. Among the three components, information technology infrastructure is the strongest predictor of organizational performance. Further, organizational performance is statistically significant in determining financial performance. There are no direct significant influences of IT competencies toward financial performance. Indirect results show that all three components of IT competencies are statistically significant. IT infrastructure is the strongest predictor of financial performance through organizational performance. Moreover, this study reveals that IT competencies are not merely sufficient to maintain financial performance. Additionally, the firm is also required to focus on complementary indicators such as innovation, quality, customer satisfaction, customer retention, and reduction of operating cost—which are generated by proper utilization of IT competencies.</p> Syed Zain ul Abdin Ali Junaid Khan Shahzad Ali Gill Tanveer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 Syed Zain ul Abdin, Ali Junaid Khan, Shahzad Ali Gill, Tanveer Ahmed 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 3 3 400 410 10.52131/jom.2021.0303.0054