iRASD Journal of Management <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><span data-contrast="auto">i</span></em><span data-contrast="auto">RASD</span><span data-contrast="auto"> Journal of </span><span data-contrast="auto">Management (<em>i</em>RASD-JOM</span><span data-contrast="auto">) is a</span><span data-contrast="auto">n international</span><span data-contrast="auto"> bi-annual double-blind peer</span><span data-contrast="auto">-</span><span data-contrast="auto">reviewed research</span><span data-contrast="auto"> </span><span data-contrast="auto">journal</span><span data-contrast="auto"> which is</span><span data-contrast="auto"> published by the International Research Alliance for Sustainable Development - </span><span data-contrast="auto">iRASD</span><span data-contrast="auto">. <em>i</em>RASD Journal of Management (<em>i</em>RASD-JOM) addresses the issues of management sciences and is committed to providing open access to all its published content. <br /></span><span data-contrast="auto"><strong>Online ISSN:</strong> 2709-8451<br /></span><span data-contrast="auto"><strong>Print ISSN:</strong> 2709-8443</span></p> International Research Alliance for Sustainable Development - iRASD en-US iRASD Journal of Management 2709-8443 Moderating Role of Investment Efficiency between Board Diversity and Dividend Policy: Evidence from Pakistan <p>The purpose of this study is to enhance the understanding in debate of governance demographics by investigate the impact of board diversity on dividend policy and moderating effect of corporate investment efficiency on dividend policy. The sample incorporated in this study comprises of panel data of 77 firms listed in Karachi stock exchange (KSE) during the period of 2012-2019. This study performs a parametric technique regression analysis to measure the investment efficiency and Panel least square models to investigate the association between board diversity and dividend policy. Furthermore, hierarchical explained the results for interaction effect of investment efficiency. This study adds a new finding in the corporate governance through empirical an investigation on the association between board diversity and dividend policy. Results support the interaction effect of investment efficiency between board diversity and dividend policy. Our study suggests that firms involve in high level of efficient investment with diverse ethnic backgrounds and gender in corporate board significantly associated with dividend policy. This study explains the practical implications for the corporate boards in the south Asian culture who enhance the investment efficiency that main goal of finance to enhance the wealth maximization of shareholders in terms of dividends.</p> Kamran Mohy-Ud-Din Riaz Ahmad Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq Muhammad Akram Copyright (c) 2022 Kamran Mohy-Ud-Din, Riaz Ahmad, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq, Muhammad Akram 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 4 2 284 296 10.52131/jom.2022.0402.0079 Impact of Capital Structure and Liquidity Conditions on the Profitability of Pharmaceutical Sector of Pakistan <p>This study was conducted to find the impact of capital structure and liquidity condition on the profitability of pharmaceutical firms listed with Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX). The dataset was comprised of eleven years 2010 to 2021. To assess profitability level, to dimensions return on assets (ROA) and gross profit margin (GPM) were used. The capital structure was measured through debt to equity ratio (DER) and debt to total funds (DTF). The liquidity level was measured through current ratio (CR) and acid test ratio (ATR). The OLS regression, fixed and random effect models were used for analysis. The findings proved that high debt to equity ratio significantly and negatively affect the profitability. The liquidity conditions have positive association with profitability of firms. The study suggested that owners and company managers should use optimal value of debt and liquidity conditions for profit maximization and to reduce the cost associated with debt capital.</p> Rukhsana Rasheed Mehwish Shahid Munaza Mukhtar Mazhar Nadeem Ishaq Copyright (c) 2022 Rukhsana Rasheed, Mehwish Shahid, Munaza Mukhtar, Mazhar Nadeem Ishaq 2022-04-10 2022-04-10 4 2 135 142 10.52131/jom.2022.0402.0068 The Effectiveness of Brand Personality & Affective Commitment in Capturing Brand Loyalty: A Study of Retailers in UK <p>Marketing research theorists have concentrated their focus in studying the emblematic meaning consumers attach to certain brands. One such concept is brand personality. The brand personality scale proposed by Aaker is popular tool for the measurement of different product categories however, its application on retailers has been a rarity. Moreover, researchers have also called for adopting a multi-dimensional approach towards the study of brand loyalty which includes loyalty dimensions of both behavioral and attitudinal loyalty in conjunction with the brand personality concept. The specific objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness brand personality in capturing consumers’ loyalty towards a retailer. Stratified random sampling was applied for gathering the data from 120 consumers belonging to the three retailers in UK. The results showed a direct influence of brand personality on dimensions of loyalty. In addition, the three retailers were found to have different brand personality dimensions. The study suggests that managers should work towards building a retail brand personality to influence the loyalty of consumers. The scope of this study can be further widened by investigating ways of building a brand personality for retailers. The results of this study have contributed to the area of retail branding in a way that this research is performed in a different setting.</p> Muhammad Abu Huraira Usman Ahmad Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Abu Huraira, Dr. Usman Ahmad 2022-04-29 2022-04-29 4 2 143 147 10.52131/jom.2022.0402.0069 Effective Management: A Catalyst for Organizational Performance <p>The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between effective management and the organizational performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). It is a fact that in modern times, the performance of SMEs is critical to improving because these entities have a great contribution to the economy of Pakistan. The earlier studies have highlighted the management crisis in organizational performance. In this regard, the study is based on the cross-sectional data collection on the Likert scale questionnaire. The study highlights that there is a critical role for goal setting, a sense of ownership, and teamwork in effective management to improve the performance of SMEs. This study is significant because it provides both theoretical and practical implications that are important to consider when it comes to the performance of SMEs. The implications of this study would be useful for management to ensure effective practices to improve the performance of the organization.</p> Ali Junaid Khan Asifa Jahangir Waseem Ul Hameed Jawad Iqbal Copyright (c) 2022 Ali Junaid Khan, Waseem Ul Hameed, Asifa Jahangir , Jawad Iqbal 2022-05-18 2022-05-18 4 2 152 161 10.52131/jom.2022.0402.0070 Factors Affecting Dividend Payout Ratio of Dividend Paying Firms Listed on KSE-100 Index <p>The study purpose is to investigate the variables that significantly affect dividend payout ratio of dividend paying firms listed on KSE-100 index. This research uses a purposive sampling method where criteria is set to select a sample. Secondary data is collected from non-financial companies using annual financial reports from Pakistan Stock Exchange through the official KSE data portal for examining panel data models using pooled OLS regression. The results showed profitability, firm’s debt and sales growth positively significantly and asset growth, retained earnings to total equity and liquidity negatively significantly affected dividend payout ratio. This research report adds to the existing literature on dividend policy by utilizing the life cycle measure by segregating it with financial performance measure that has not yet done in the Pakistan as a developing market. Results prefer companies to focus on high liquidity, growth in net assets and RETE (life cycle) and management to use profit in the proper way and utilize assets optimally to increase dividend payout. Investors consider ROA to expect high return on dividend. It is suggested that firms pay dividends when there is a chance of decreasing profits and growth rates in future in order to attract more investors and to illustrate better company’s performance in the market for increasing growth opportunities and pay maximum dividends.</p> Nida Arshad Fareeha Waseem Syeda Fizza Abbas Copyright (c) 2022 Nida Arshad, Fareeha Waseem, Syeda Fizza Abbas 2022-05-29 2022-05-29 4 2 162 181 10.52131/jom.2022.0402.0071 A Restricted Co-integration Analysis of Financial Development and Economic Growth: Evidence from Pakistan <p>The current financial crises once again highlighted the importance of financial sector. Credit availability to firms improves the productivity and encourages private investment both through aggregated demand and aggregated supply. Accumulation of capital and its optimal utilization is important for sustainable growth of an economy. The objective of the current study is to find the effect of financial development on economic growth. The study utilized the restricted cointegration analysis to quantify the long run association between the financial development and economic growth. The result indicates that credit, GDP growth and private investment are cointegrated and in addition, credit trigger economic growth in long run via direct and indirect channel. The study suggested that easy access to credit should be given to augment economic growth.</p> Syed Muhammad Imran Shah Syed Mumtaz Ali Kazmi Kazmi Sadia Ayaz Muhammad Samiullah Samiullah Copyright (c) 2022 Syed Muhammad Imran Shah, Syed Mumtaz Ali Kazmi Kazmi, Sadia Ayaz, Muhammad Samiullah 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 4 2 182 188 10.52131/jom.2022.0402.0072 Reinforcing Environmental Sustainability through Institutional Pressures, Green Supply Chain, and Customer Intention among Pakistani Manufacturing Firms A-Pilot Test <p>Achieving equilibrium between environmental sustainability and economic growth remains a challenge for business concerns across the globe. Developed countries have achieved this balance through re-designing and re-engineering their business operations to eco-friendly processes to some extent but developing countries are still in the transit phase. As this study incorporated an adapted questionnaire hence, this needs to examine the reliability and validity of the constructs. This study was conducted to measure the reliability and validity of the instrument designed to evaluate the role of institutional pressures in implementing green supply chain management practices and their impact on environmental sustainability through the moderating role of green marketing and mediating role of customer green purchase intention among manufacturing firms in Pakistan. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed among employees of manufacturing companies and customers of green products. A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed and 162 valid responses were received which were used for this pilot test. The initial content and face validity of the survey questionnaire were obtained from subject and field experts. However, the results of this pilot showed that all the constructs met the reliability and validity threshold and the instrument is valid to measure the theoretical model proposed for the study. The study suggested that easy access to credit should be given to augment economic growth.</p> Muhammad Rahies Khan Muhammad Mutasim Billah Tufail Mubashir Ali Khan Muhammad Shakeel Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Rahies Khan, Mutasim Tufail Billah, Mubashir Ali Khan, Muhammad Shakeel 2022-06-16 2022-06-16 4 2 189 200 10.52131/jom.2022.0402.0073 Green Supply Chain Management: Opportunities, Challenges and Changing Strategies: A literature Review <p>Greening for sustainable development is an important area for researchers as well as practitioners. Sustainability issues have now become a challenge and these result from unethical and irresponsible business operations. Three thousand of the world’s largest corporations are contributing to almost $2 trillion in terms of negative social and environmental externalities a year (Foo, Lee, Tan, &amp; Ooi, 2018) Organizations are focusing on green practices in order to become sustainable. . The main objective of this study is to analyze the opportunities, challenges and changing nature of strategies in implementing green supply chain management. The research adopts a systematic literature review procedure to explore the existing literature. The current study is a unique contribution for researchers as well as practitioners as it explains the challenges, opportunities and strategies for implementing green supply chain management.</p> Samina Khan Urooj Pasha Copyright (c) 2022 Samina Khan, Urooj Pasha 2022-06-17 2022-06-17 4 2 201 218 10.52131/jom.2022.0402.0074 Understanding the Role of Ethical Leadership and Workplace Conflicts a Mediation Moderation Model: A Time-Lagged Study <p>Drawing on Social Learning Theory and Conservation of Resource Concept this research mediation moderation model was supported by a study which is conducted from multiple sources and a study conducted in three-waves in Pakistan. Workplace Conflicts and Ethical Leadership ideas are developed and brought together by these results. This exploration inspected the character of Ethical leadership happening in workplace conflict circumstances. Explicitly, ethical leadership remained prophesied on the way to construct members’ resolution efficacy and consequently upsurge members’ capability to agreement through conflict state of affairs (i.e., relationship and task conflicts) concerning in the workplace political scenarios. We gathered information from a variety of sources, including employees and their direct managers in several Pakistani organizations. The current study employed the survey approach. This study shows a negative relationship between ethical leadership and relationship conflict and task conflicts. Moreover, this study also shows, resolution efficacy plays a role as a mediator between Ethical Leadership and relationship conflict as well as task conflicts. Furthermore, shows that Perception of Politics plays a role as a moderator in the relationship between Resolution Efficacy and Relationship Conflicts as well as task conflicts. Ethical leadership activities possibly will improve employee conflict resolution efficacy, implying that concluded the solicitation of ethical leadership social learning philosophies, leaders may be critical in creating a work environment that morally encourages and fosters employees' conflict resolution efficacy.</p> Ayesha Rashid Muhammad Hassan Copyright (c) 2022 Ayesha Rashid, Muhammad Hassan 2022-06-18 2022-06-18 4 2 219 240 10.52131/jom.2022.0402.0075 Impact of Transformational Leadership on Constructive Deviant Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Felt Obligation <p>The primary goal of this research is to determine the influence of transformational leadership on constructive deviant behaviors (pro-social behavior, expressing voice, taking charge, whistleblowing) with the mediating effect of felt obligation. Diverse sample (IT, banking, and health) was taken for the data collection. Data was collected through questionnaires. Data was collected in three different time lags. The result of this study showed that transformational leadership has a significant influence on constructive deviant behaviors. The findings also show that the association between transformational leadership and constructive deviant behaviors is mediated by felt obligation. The association between felt obligation and constructive deviant actions is also strongly moderated by challenge stressor.</p> Lalarukh Shabbir Muhammad Hassan Copyright (c) 2022 Lalarukh Shabbir, Muhammad Hassan 2022-06-19 2022-06-19 4 2 241 260 10.52131/jom.2022.0401.0076 Ameliorating Performance of UAE Projects by Technological Collaboration of Construction Entities <p>The construction industry is comprised of various entities that are a collection of different teams with varying expertise. These entities are supposed to work together on a particular project to achieve a common goal. This research investigates the association of Information Technology and the Degree of Functional Integration with the performance of Construction Projects. The United Arab Emirates is known for its Construction wonders and mega structures supported by massive investments. Therefore, the construction industry of the United Arab Emirates is selected to study the role Information Technology application in the Performance of the Construction firms when studied together with prevailing function integration norms within the organizations. The collected data is then analyzed through SPSS. It is revealed based on the regression results that Information Technology Capability and Degree of Functional Integration of including entities i.e., Owner, Contractor, and Supplier have positive effects on the performance of Construction projects. In the end findings are supported by a conceptual model that explicitly explains the Procedural levels of Concept implementation.</p> Wajeeha Hasnain Urooj Pasha Copyright (c) 2022 Wajeeha Hasnain, Urooj Pasha 2022-06-19 2022-06-19 4 2 261 271 10.52131/jom.2022.0402.0077 Directed Financial Networks using Granger Causality: A Study on Stock Markets of Pakistan and its Major Trading Partners <p>This study is conducted with the aim to construct and analyze directed financial networks of Pakistan and its major trading partners. Five major export partners of Pakistan are USA, China, UK, Germany and UAE. While major import partners are USA, China, Indonesia., Saudi Arabia and UAE. Granger causality test was conducted using the stock returns from each stock exchange. The test was used to detect whether a change in the prices one stock exchange cause a change the prices of others. The results reveal that none of the exporting or importing country’s stock exchange cause any change in the Pakistan stock exchange neither does PSX cause any change in other stock exchanges. However, some countries like Shanghai and New York, Shanghai and Frankfurt show a unidirectional causality.</p> Ayesha Latif Nadir Khan Safiullah Copyright (c) 2022 Ayesha Latif, Nadir Khan, Safiullah 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 4 2 272 283 10.52131/jom.2022.0402.0078